JejuSoul
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Comparing Battery Chemistries

Tue May 03, 2016 8:51 pm

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This thread is to compare battery chemistries in different EVs. I am editing and updating this first post of the thread with complete details about the Soul EV battery. There is also a thread discussing the layout and position of the battery pack - Comparing the Soul EV battery with the Ioniq EV

The Soul EV has a battery by SK Innovation.
It has polymer pouch type cells, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathode, a “special” ceramic separator with improved thermal resistance properties (presumably a wet separator by SK Innovation), high-capacity silicon/graphite (Si-C) anode and gel electrolyte additive materials. Each 40Ah battery cell has energy density of 200 Wh/kg

Press Release
=============
1./ Advanced battery for Kia Soul EV
2./ Kia pushes energy-density frontier with Soul EV battery

U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium Reports
=================================
3./ FY2014_APR_Energy_Storage_R&D (for SK Innovation E400 see printed pages 47-49, on screen pages 95-97)
4./ 2013USDRIVEAccomplishmentsReport (for SK Innovation E400 see printed page 32, on screen page 39)
5./ USABC_Final_Report_June_2014 (for SK Innovation E400 see printed pages E21-E23, on screen pages 145-147)

Lithium Ion Battery Components
6./ SK Innovation to Increase Production Capability of Lithium Battery Separator

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

While looking for reasons why the Volt degrades less than the Leaf I found this info from Charles Whalen: (written in October 2010) http://gm-volt.com/forum/showthread.php ... band/page2
Charles Whalen wrote:"... the Volt’s and Leaf’s respective battery packs have nearly identical chemistry, both using a lithium-manganese cathode. They both have the same sensitivity to high temps. Out of all the various lithium cathodic chemistries, lithium-manganese is the most heat sensitive and has the highest and fastest rate of capacity decay and degradation at higher temperatures."

The Leaf’s battery cell is manufactured by NEC, is a pouch type cell with stacked elements, a LiMn2O4 cathode from Nippon Denko, a graphite anode from Hitachi Chemicals, a Celgard PP dry separator, and an EC type LiPF6 electrolyte from Tomiyama.

The Volt’s battery cell is manufactured by LG Chem, is a pouch type cell with stacked elements, a LiMn2O4 cathode from Nikki Catalysis, a hard carbon anode (which is more robust and has better/longer calendar life properties than the graphite anode in the Leaf’s battery cell) from Kureha, a Celgard PP dry/SRS separator, and a PC type LiPF6 electrolyte produced in-house by LG Chem.
Last edited by JejuSoul on Wed Mar 08, 2017 7:20 pm, edited 8 times in total.
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ZuinigeRijder
Posts: 89
Joined: Thu Dec 31, 2015 3:59 am

Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Wed May 04, 2016 6:04 am

Here is some information about a SK Innovation battery (page 35-37)
http://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/05/f15/APR13_Energy_Storage_d_III_Adv_Battery_Dev_0.pdf

I do not know if it is related to the battery in the Kia Soul EV.

Summary:
SKI has evaluated LMO-free E400 and cycle life and calendar life will be continuously conducted until RPT10. Currently, based on capacity retention of 80%, cycle life is expected to exceed 2,000 cycles and calendar life of over 70weeks at 45C and 100% SOC –
SKI will estimate battery life with RPT10 data at the end of the program. SKI would like to continuously develop and modify cell design including electrolyte optimization and adjustment of cathode formulation in order to improve safety further.

And this article (E-9 till E-11) talks about the E250 type:
http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160224

EDIT: I think I am completely wrong, Kia Soul EV has NMC and not LMO.

Video's:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtJ9GoYUPyU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rE3bHQTjKD0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rE3bHQTjKD0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NfGFfWP2a4

JejuSoul
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Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Thu May 05, 2016 1:05 am

ZuinigeRijder wrote:EDIT: I think I am completely wrong, Kia Soul EV has NMC and not LMO.
I think your edit is wrong. You were right first time. The SK Innovation battery is LMO-free. That means it doesn't use LMO. Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4). Instead it uses Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC)

Look at this page - http://www.batteryuniversity.com/learn/ ... ithium_ion

Code: Select all

Most Li-manganese batteries blend with lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) to improve the specific energy and prolong the life span. This combination brings out the best in each system, and the LMO (NMC) is chosen for most electric vehicles, such as the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and BMW i3. The LMO part of the battery, which can be about 30 percent, provides high current boost on acceleration; the NMC part gives the long driving range.
It seems NEC, LG Chem and Samsung SDI all use a combination LMO (NMC) whereas SK Innovation does not.

There is more info about the battery here - http://www.kiapressoffice.com/Release/35730

We had a discussion about the SK Innovation E400 cell before on this forum see - viewtopic.php?f=14&t=386&start=10

------------------------------------------------------------------

The BMW i3 has a new battery pack announced. According to http://insideevs.com/with-longer-range- ... o-the-old/

Code: Select all

The BMW i3 was previously equipped with 60 Ah lithium-ion battery cells (from Samsung SDI), that on the pack level stored around 21.6 kWh of energy (18.8 kWh were usable).

Now, the new 94 Ah cells are not only higher capacity, they are also more energy dense, so more energy is stored in a similar mass and volume – 33.2 kWh (27.2 kWh is usable).


There is also a rumour that the Sanyo cells inside the VW E-Golf will be increased from 28Ah to 37Ah later this year.

Is a similar improvement by SK Innovation likely to be announced soon.? The individual cells used by SK Innovation are currently 37.5 Ah
Last edited by JejuSoul on Wed May 18, 2016 6:57 am, edited 5 times in total.
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ZuinigeRijder
Posts: 89
Joined: Thu Dec 31, 2015 3:59 am

Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Thu May 05, 2016 6:27 am

Then I have "must read" links if someone is interested in Battery Chemistries:

FY 2014 Annual Progress Report - Energy Storage R&D
http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/vehicle-technologies-office-2014-energy-storage-rd-annual-report

The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Energy Storage subprogram in 2014.

Past years' reports are listed on the Annual Progress Reports page. The document is very large; it has been divided into sections for easier use. The first section covers the Vehicle Technologies Office overview; the Battery subprogram R&D overview; Advanced Battery Development project summaries; and Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design project summaries. It also includes the cover and table of contents. The second section covers the summaries of the Applied Batteries Research for Transportation Projects. The third section includes Focused Fundamental Research project summaries, the list of contributors and collaborators, and a list of acronyms used.

Part 1 of 3 (256 pages), for SK Innovation E400 see pages 47-49, LG Chem see pages 26-30
Advanced Battery Development
Battery Testing, Analysis and Design
http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/04/f21/FY2014_APR_Energy_Storage_R%26D_FINAL_Part1_of_3.pdf


Part 2 of 3 (242 pages)
Applied Battery Research for Transportation
http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/04/f21/FY2014_APR_Energy_Storage_R%26D_FINAL_Part2_of_3.pdf

Part 3 of 3 (282 pages)
Focused Fundamental Research
http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/04/f22/FY2014_APR_Energy_Storage_R%26D_FINAL_Part3_of_3_0.pdf
Last edited by ZuinigeRijder on Thu May 05, 2016 7:42 am, edited 4 times in total.

JejuSoul
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Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Thu May 05, 2016 6:41 am

ZuinigeRijder: Good find. That testing data is a year more up to date than the 2013 version we had before.

"...capacity retention results show 86.1% of retention at 1,500 cycles..."

Am updating the first post in this thread with the best of these links.
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ZuinigeRijder
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Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Thu May 05, 2016 7:43 am

Also the E400 results are described in the already mentioned document (pages E21-E23):
http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160224

Initial results indicate that when LMO- free E400 takes a purely drive mode, it can run more than 248,000 miles with 343kWh of energy throughput (per unit cell; 91.0MWh per pack system) based on 80% of capacity retention.

On 80% retention basis, LMO-free E400 can maintain 3.1 years, 3.6 years, 4.6 years, and 9.8 years in 30°C, Phoenix, Honolulu, and Minneapolis, respectively. This is the result result from SOC 100% storage, and when SOC conditions responding real life are applied, calendar estimated life will be much longer than this. From accumulated NCM cell experiences of SKI, calendar life of SOC 50% is approximately five times longer than that of SOC 100%, and calendar life of lower end SOC is approximately 20 times longer than that of SOC 100%. Thus, it is considered to last more than 10 years when real life SOC conditions are applied to LMO-free E400.

Firstly, LMO- free E400 satisfies the USABC goal for total pack energy of 40kWh and system specific energy of 150Wh/kg.
Secondly, based on capacity retention of 80%, cycle life is expected to exceed 2,000 cycles and calendar life is at least 100 weeks at 35°C and SOC 100% condition, which is far superior life performance and also exceeds the USABC life goal.
Thirdly, abuse tests were carried out and LMO-free E400 showed safe and stable behavior in thermal stability, penetration, short circuit and overdischarge tests.

JejuSoul
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Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Fri May 06, 2016 9:48 pm

ZuinigeRijder: Thanks for finding all these. I am updating the first post in this thread with the best links. I will comment about the cycle life testing in the battery ageing model thread.
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JejuSoul
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Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Sat May 14, 2016 5:09 pm

The Chevy Bolt, Hyundai Ioniq EV and it seems Leaf v2 will all use an LG Chem battery. There is a quote by Carlos Ghosn at Auto China 2016 "Why are we working with LG Chemical? Because we think LG Chemical has the best performance." see https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/rele ... china-2016

The new LG Chem battery does not have the same chemistry as the one described earlier for the 2010 Chevy Volt. At present the batteries for the Volt are produced at the LG Chem plant in Holland, Michigan. But the batteries for the Bolt will be built in South Korea at LG Chem's Ochang plant.

Will update this post when I find anything that states what the new chemistry is, and whether it is 'better' than the battery used in the Soul EV produced by SK Innovation. My first guess was that the reason Hyundai swapped from SK Innovation to LG Chem for BEV's was price. LG Chem is cheaper. But the quote by Carlos Ghosn states performance. Hyundai has always used LG Chem for their Hybrid and Plugin Hybrid vehicles.

In the USABC report the presentation about LG Chem's battery describes a PHEV battery. (The Volt is a PHEV). The battery is described as MRC = Manganese Rich Cathode. " The layered-layered compound xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 with reported capacities > 250 mAh/g. has one of the highest specific energies of any high voltage cathode materials currently being studied". It seems LG Chem's MRC PHEV battery has taken the opposite approach to SK Innovation's LMO-free.

The new LG Chem BEV battery chemistry may include parts licensed from 3M. see http://www.greencarcongress.com/2015/08 ... 04-lg.html. It may also be a Nickel Rich Cathode if they use this patent - http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20150090925
Advantage of Nickel, cheap, "...LiNiO2-based cathode active materials are relatively inexpensive and exhibit high discharge capacity... "
Disadvantage of Cobalt, expensive, "LiCoO2 is widely used due to excellent lifespan characteristics and charge and discharge efficiencies. However, LiCoO2 is low in safety at high temperature and expensive due to resource limitations of cobalt as a raw material and thus there is limitation in price competitiveness. "

LG Chem's Nickel Rich Cathode is already being produced and is in the 2015 Chevy Spark. see https://avt.inl.gov/vehicle-button/2015-chevrolet-spark

Some numbers from the Tesla forum - don't know if they are accurate.
some quick numbers on the Bolt's battery pack. see - https://teslamotorsclub.com/tmc/threads ... 188/page-2 also https://teslamotorsclub.com/tmc/threads ... 975/page-2

Gravimetric Energy Density: Bolt 138Wh/kg. (Tesla at 156Wh/kg)
Gravimetric Power Density: Bolt 0.37W/kg. (Tesla at 0.67W/kg)

The numbers are for the whole battery pack - eg . The 2012 Tesla Model S 85 kWh pack was 544 kg, which means it has gravimetric energy density of 156 Wh/kg.
The 2017 Bolt battery pack is 60 kWh and weighs 435kg -> Gravimetric Energy Density = 138 Wh/kg
The 2015 Soul EV battery pack is 30.5 kWh and weighs 202.8kg -> Gravimetric Energy Density = 150.4 Wh/kg

Good info here about the relative costs and availability of the metals needed in the battery. - http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/ ... e-of-tesla
It seems Cobalt is the most expensive and the most supply constrained. In the article "Tesla, which doesn’t use much cobalt in its batteries, is trying to get rid of it and add nickel". So it seems both LG Chem and Tesla are increasing the proportion of Nickel to Cobalt.
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JejuSoul
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Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Thu Feb 23, 2017 8:03 pm

We have found a couple of reports about the cell testing of SK Innovation batteries before. They refer to E400 or E250 cells. We have never actually confirmed the cells, and the cell number. It seems to be E375 - seen on the cells here -

Image

From this YouTube video

https://youtu.be/AtJ9GoYUPyU
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JejuSoul
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Re: Comparing Battery Chemistries

Fri Jan 12, 2018 9:17 am

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While looking up info for the upcoming N iro EV I came across this article and links.

A Korean article in etnews gives more details about the NCM cells used in Li ion batteries.

It states the improvement in energy density from NCM622 to NCM811 is about 10%.
NCM622 cell energy density 180mAh/g compared to NCM811 cell energy density 200mAh/g

It also states that the new cells are due to a collaboration between SK Innovation and a company called Eco Pro.

Details on EcoPro cathodes here - High Technique Cathode Active Material for next generation

Image

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I also came across this article on NCM811 - Anisotropic Lattice Strain and Mechanical Degradation of High- and Low-Nickel NCM Cathod
In the near future, the targets for lithium-ion batteries concerning specific energy and cost can advantageously be met by introducing layered LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM) cathode materials with a high Ni content (x ≥ 0.6). Increasing the Ni content allows for the utilization of more lithium at a given cell voltage, thereby improving the specific capacity but at the expense of cycle life.

The downside of NCM811 is reduced cycle life

-----------------------------------

LG Chem which is also developing NCM811 bought its cathode supplier GS EM a few years ago, so now does this process itself.

LG Chem to buy research and patent assets in cathode material biz from GS EM

Samsung SDI which seems to be a year or two behind on this research uses a company called Umicore.
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